World War II brought about untold changes in Europe and elsewhere. This period marked a cultural and economic shift for the entire globe, and the recovery from that shift echoes to this day. In Europe, this shift is most clearly illustrated by the change in the gross domestic product GDP in the years immediately following the war. The GDP is a numerical metric that measures all the finished products and services produced by a particular population, usually a single nation or collection of nations, such as the European Union.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe.
We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods.
Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. Large amounts of physical capital were destroyed through six years of ground battles and bombing. Many individuals were forced to abandon or give up their property without compensation and to move on to new lands.
Periods of hunger became more common even in relatively prosperous Western Europe. Families were separated for long periods of time, and many children lost their fathers. Many, including young children, would personally witness the horrors of war as battles and bombing took place in the very areas where they lived.
Horrendous crimes against humanity were committed. Due to WWII, political and economic systems in many countries would be permanently altered. In this paper, we investigate long-run effects of World War II on late-life economic and health outcomes in Western continental Europe health, education, labor market outcomes and marriage.
We explore several channels through which this war might have influenced individual lives, and document which groups of the population were most affected. SHARE covers representative samples of the population aged 50 and over in 13 European countries, with about 20, observations.
We also collected external data on casualties, timing and location of combat action, yearly GDP by country, population movements, and male-female population ratios.
To our individual-level analysis of the multidimensional effects of a major shock that affected life circumstances, we add new dimensions to a rapidly increasing literature that aims at explaining the causes of health and wealth gradients in labor and health economics see Deaton, ; Smith, a ; Heckman, SHARE not only measures major contemporaneous economic and health outcomes of adults over age 50 in these European countries, but includes retrospective modules meant to capture salient parts of early life experiences, including those related to the war.
There simply are no micro economic panel data in either the United States or in Europe that have prospectively tracked people for that long a time period. Since the end of WWII, western continental Europe has had a rich and sometime tumultuous economic and political history, the effects of which on its residents are not well documented.
There is legitimate concern about the quality of recall data, particularly for time periods decades in the past.
|Economy of the United States - Wikipedia||Across the board, little changed. Only mobilization for a world war would bring an end to the most devastating economic crisis in United States history.|
|Hendrik Spruyt||As David Davis, the new secretary of state for exiting the EU, and Liam Fox, his colleague at international trade, begin their tasks, at least one poll indicates that the British public believes that leaving the bloc will help growth in the long run.|
|Edited by Robert E. Goodin||Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. New order emerging, —45 The advances in economic growth and political stabilization that were evident in most of Latin America by the early 20th century came up against an array of challenges as the century wore on.|
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|Korea Trust Fund for Economic & Peace-Building Transitions||When Europeans commemorate the Great War of this summer they should be reflecting not only on the diplomatic blunders and the enormous waste of lives but also the beginning of a new approach to international relations epitomised by the EU. Diplomatic alliances and promises made during the First World War, especially in the Middle East, also came back to haunt Europeans a century later.|
But that concern has been lessened by a realization that recall of events during childhood is better than for other periods of life, particularly if events are salient as they certainly are in this application.
Smith b investigated several quality markers and showed that his childhood health instrument was successful in matching known secular trends in childhood illnesses decades in the past. One aim of the paper is to illustrate how such retrospective life data can further our understanding of effects of early-life conditions as affected by large external shocks, such as a war.
Largely due to data reasons beyond their control, the studies of which we are aware could not use individual-level measures of whether a particular person was affected by the war and through which channel.
Retrospective life data, such as those from SHARE, contain detailed information and provide the opportunity of studying that issue. Another possibility is using different measures of war exposure such as the closeness of combat.
We construct such measures from external data sources. In addition, SHARE data contain retrospective questions on several possible channels of war exposure: Given the scale of the war and number of ways it fundamentally changed the world, the existing economic literature using WWII as a natural experiment is surprisingly thin.
Still, it does suggest that excellent research opportunities remain, especially given the wide diversity of European experiences in WWII.
This paper is divided into six sections.
The next highlights the main attributes of SHARE data and the additional data we collected for this research. The fourth section summarizes statistical models that capture impacts of the experience of WWII on individual adult labor market, demographic, and health outcomes. We also present our models of the influence of the war on some of the primary pathways through which it had long lasting impacts—hunger, dispossession, the absence of a father, and marriage.
The final section highlights our main conclusions.
In addition to a standard set of demographic attributes age, marital status, educationSHARE data include health variables self-reported health, health conditions, health behaviorspsychological variables e. This information is used to aid in dating of all other events.
The information in the life history includes family composition and type of home number of rooms, running water, toilet, etcnumber of books, and occupation of father.
These measures were used to create an index of childhood SES at age the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. Truman Doctrine a U.S. policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in , of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by .
· They were expanded after the start of the conflict, whose economic impact on Latin America was generally comparable to that of World War I but more intense because of the earlier and deeper involvement of the United regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com In late , a full two years before the United States entered World War II, President Franklin D.
Roosevelt decided it would be necessary—and perhaps wise—to invest time . · Russia’s national income in war and revolution, to Mark Harrison, Andrei Markevich 11 May This column argues that measuring this experience yields lessons for the relationship between state capacity, government policies, and economic regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com · About Romania since the Second World War.
CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Romania since the Second World War is the first book about Romania designed to chart the progress of the nation under the communist regime as well as the transition period that followed, providing detailed analysis of the aspects of continuity and change that can be identified over the period as a regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com · I make two points about this argument; one, that the relationship between higher costs of war from loss of trade and war is indeterminate, and two, that higher trade flows could make war less regardbouddhiste.com