Biology gcse coursework muscle fatigue

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Biology gcse coursework muscle fatigue

McBeathand K. Ranatunga, Muscle Contraction Group, Dept. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In experiments on small bundles of intact fibers from a rat fast muscle, in vitro, we examined the decline in force in repeated tetanic contractions; the aim was to characterize the effect of shortening and of temperature on the initial phase of muscle fatigue.

The Biology gcse coursework muscle fatigue that the extent of fatigue is increased with shortening contractions and is lower at higher temperatures is consistent with the view that force depression by inorganic phosphate, which accumulates within fibers during activity, may be a primary cause of initial muscle fatigue.

The original experiments of Merton 28 on in situ human muscle showed that a main underlying cause of decline in force fatigue is indeed within muscle, namely, accumulation of metabolic products of activity. However, subsequent studies have shown that the etiology of fatigue of muscular performance can be rather complex and may involve impairment of various nervous mechanisms,; referred to as central fatigue 41it seems that there is no one mechanism responsible and that in vivo muscle fatigue can be additionally caused by different neural mechanisms, specific to the task being performed 1929 The present study addresses an aspect of peripheral muscle fatigue.

Muscle fatigue coursework gcse

In general, however, such experiments indicated an initial force decline followed by a later more pronounced decline 31 Whereas the late phase of fatigue, referred to as activation fatigue 18was shown to be associated with impaired excitation-contraction coupling processes, the early force decline myofibrillar fatigue is thought to be largely due to accumulation of products of ATP hydrolysis such as inorganic phosphate Pi affecting the cross-bridge cycle for recent reviews, see 1 Against the general background knowledge briefly summarized above also see discussionwe have carried out experiments to determine what may be a predominant cause of early myofibrillar fatigue in intact rat muscle fibers; the rationale behind these experiments was the following.

First, when an actively contracting muscle is allowed to shorten, the force it exerts is reduced but its rates of energy liberation and ATP hydrolysis are raised; the converse effects are obtained when an active muscle is stretched 101720 Hence, if a major contributing factor to early fatigue is the accumulation of Pi, a product released from actomyosin ATP hydrolysis, then the extent of muscle fatigue would be greater with shortening contractions doing external work than with isometric contractions.

Thus, if Pi-induced force depression is a major cause, the extent of early fatigue would be less at the physiological temperatures.

The chamber was perfused 0.

Biology gcse coursework muscle fatigue

A Peltier device fitted beneath the chamber controlled the temperature and a thermocouple inside the chamber monitored the solution temperature changes. Based on some preliminary experiments, the experimental protocol adopted to examine fatigue was basically an adaptation of that of Westerblad et al.

From such recordings throughout each experiment, measurements of isometric force before fatigue P0 control and during a fatiguing run were made to determine the time course and also the extent of fatigue at the 20th contraction.

This procedure allowed examination, with and without shortening, of the time course of isometric tension fatigue, which was not readily possible with other protocols e.

Biology gcse coursework muscle fatigue

Data recording and analysis. A two-channel chart recorder Multitrace2, Lectromed was also used to provide a record of the entire experimental time course.

Fatigue in isometric mode and shortening mode. Figure 1 shows a chart recording from a typical experiment. During fatigue run in isometric mode Fig. Within the duration of recording shown by the dashed horizontal line, each tetanic contraction was initially isometric but contained a subsequent ramp shortening phase.

During fatigue run in this shortening mode Fig.Finally, the sixth section of the key to edexcel gce as biology coursework the issue of continuity and discontinuity, or levels.

Edexcel Gce As Biology Coursework

We ask whether the quality of the medieval universities was, specifically. Ok so I'm really struggling to do this, my ocr controlled assessment for biology (which is 25% of my grade)wants me to conduct an experiment to test muscle fatigue I thought that like squeezing a ball would be a good idea but I don't understand how you an measure muscle fatigue with school lab resources PLEASE HELP.

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Required Subjects A level Biology and one other science subject from Chemistry, Mathematics or Physics. GCSE Mathematics grade B or 6, English Language grade C or 4. IELTS overall with at least in each component.

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