It is an excess in an age where almost a billion people go hungry, and represents a waste of the labour, water, energy, land and other inputs that went into producing that food.
Primary food processing[ edit ] These whole, dried bananas in Thailand are an example of primary food processing. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can eventually be eaten.
This category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as dryingthreshingwinnowingand milling grain, shelling nutsand butchering animals for meat. Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use.
Baking breadregardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. History[ edit ] Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with saltand various types of cooking such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven bakingSuch basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay.
Salt-preservation was especially common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient GreekChaldeanEgyptian and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe, North and South America and Asia.
These tried and tested processing techniques remained essentially the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals also date back to before the preindustrial revolution, and include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.
Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Michael Foods egg -processing plant in Wakefield, Nebraska Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs.
In Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which ultimately contributed to the development of tinning, and subsequently canning by Peter Durand in Although initially expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would later become a staple around the world.
Pasteurizationdiscovered by Louis Pasteur inimproved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine, beer, and milk preservation.
A form of pre-made split-pea soup that has become traditional In the 20th century, World War IIthe space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray dryingevaporationjuice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, and such preservatives as sodium benzoate.
In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed.
By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave ovenblenderand rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience.
Food processing companies marketed their products especially towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods often credited to Clarence Birdseye found their success in sales of juice concentrates and " TV dinners ".
Benefits and drawbacks[ edit ] Processed seafood - fishsquidprawn balls and simulated crab sticks surimi Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.
Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, and long voyages would not be possible.
Processed foods are usually less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long-distance transportation from the source to the consumer. Fresh materials, such as fresh produce and raw meats, are more likely to harbour pathogenic micro-organisms e.
Salmonella capable of causing serious illnesses. The extremely varied modern diet is only truly possible on a wide scale because of food processing. Transportation of more exotic foods, as well as the elimination of much hard labour gives the modern eater easy access to a wide variety of food unimaginable to their ancestors.
Therefore, a large profit potential exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products. Individuals may see a benefit in conveniencebut rarely see any direct financial cost benefit in using processed food as compared to home preparation.
Processed food freed people from the large amount of time involved in preparing and cooking "natural" unprocessed foods. In many families the adults are working away from home and therefore there is little time for the preparation of food based on fresh ingredients.
The food industry offers products that fulfill many different needs: Modern food processing also improves the quality of life for people with allergies, diabeticsand other people who cannot consume some common food elements.
Food processing can also add extra nutrients such as vitamins. Meat packages in a Roman supermarket Processing of food can decrease its nutritional density.Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten. The causes of food waste or loss are numerous and occur at the stages of producing, processing, retailing and consuming..
Global food loss and waste amount to between one-third and one-half of all food produced. Loss and wastage occur at all stages of the food supply chain or value regardbouddhiste.com low-income countries, most loss.
Total per capita food production for human consumption is about kg a year in rich countries, almost twice the kg a year produced in the poorest regions. In developing countries 40% of losses occur at post-harvest and processing levels while in industrialized countries more than 40% of losses happen at retail and consumer levels.
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other regardbouddhiste.com processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods..
Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the. The federal government, led by EPA and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), is seeking to work with communities, organizations and businesses along with our partners in state, tribal and local government to reduce food loss and waste by 50 percent over the next 15 years.
As an important stride in reaching the food reduction goal, EPA hosted the Food Recovery Summit Exit. The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
Food loss and food waste refer to the decrease of food in subsequent stages of the food supply chain intended for human consumption. Food is lost or wasted throughout the supply chain, from initial production down to final household consumption.