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Play media Simulation of the electric field inside a microwave oven for the first 8 ns of operation A microwave oven heats food by passing microwave radiation through it. Microwaves are a form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation with a frequency higher than ordinary radio waves but lower than infrared light.
Microwave ovens use frequencies in one of the ISM industrial, scientific, medical bandswhich are reserved for this use, so they do not interfere with other vital radio services.
Consumer ovens usually use 2. Many molecules such as those of water are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a partial positive charge at one end and a partial negative charge at the other, and therefore rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field of the microwaves.
Rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion, thus dispersing energy. As noted microwave ovens can operate at many frequencies.
Dielectric heating of liquid water is also temperature-dependent: However, due to the lower specific heat capacity of fats and oils and their higher vaporization temperature, they often attain much higher temperatures inside microwave ovens.
Foods high in water content and with little oil rarely exceed the boiling temperature of water. Microwave heating can cause localized thermal runaways in some materials with low thermal conductivity which also have dielectric constants that increase with temperature.
An example is glass, which can exhibit thermal runaway in a microwave to the point of melting if preheated. Additionally, microwaves can melt certain types of rocks, producing small quantities of molten rock.
Some ceramics can also be melted, and may even become clear upon cooling. Thermal runaway is more typical of electrically conductive liquids such as salty water. This idea arises from heating behavior seen if an absorbent layer of water lies beneath a less absorbent drier layer at the surface of a food; in this case, the deposition of heat energy inside a food can exceed that on its surface.
This can also occur if the inner layer has a lower heat capacity than the outer layer causing it to reach a higher temperature, or even if the inner layer is more thermally conductive than the outer layer making it feel hotter despite having a lower temperature.
In most cases, however, with uniformly structured or reasonably homogenous food item, microwaves are absorbed in the outer layers of the item at a similar level to that of the inner layers. Penetration depth of microwaves is dependent on food composition and the frequency, with lower microwave frequencies longer wavelengths penetrating further.
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Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message A microwave oven converts a large portion of its electrical input into microwave energy.
The other W are dissipated as heat, mostly in the magnetron tube. Such wasted heat, along with heat from the product being microwaved, is exhausted as warm air through cooling vents.
A magnetron with section removed magnet is not shown A microwave oven consists of: One variant of the GE Spacemaker had two taps on the transformer primary, for high and low power modes.
Newer models use inverter power supplies that use pulse-width modulation to provide effectively continuous heating at reduced power settings, so that foods are heated more evenly at a given power level and can be heated more quickly without being damaged by uneven heating.
The first is that they should be in one of the industrial, scientific, and medical ISM frequency bands set aside for unlicensed purposes. For household purposes, 2. Two of them are centered on 5.
The third, centered on The cooking chamber is similar to a Faraday cage to prevent the waves from coming out of the oven. Even though there is no continuous metal-to-metal contact around the rim of the door, choke connections on the door edges act like metal-to-metal contact, at the frequency of the microwaves, to prevent leakage.
The oven door usually has a window for easy viewing, with a layer of conductive mesh some distance from the outer panel to maintain the shielding. Control panel[ edit ] Modern microwave ovens use either an analog dial-type timer or a digital control panel for operation.
Control panels feature an LEDliquid crystal or vacuum fluorescent display, in the 90s brands such as Panasonic and GE began offering models with a scrolling-text display showing cooking instructions, numeric buttons for entering the cook time, a power level selection feature and other possible functions such as a defrost setting and pre-programmed settings for different food types, such as meat, fishpoultry, vegetables, frozen vegetablesfrozen dinnersand popcorn.
An audible warning such as a bell or a beeper is usually present to indicate that cooking has completed.Microwaves from Frigidaire come in a range of sizes and colors. Find the best countertop, built-in and over-the-range microwaves from Frigidaire today! Micro-Trim Custom Trim Kits make it possible to install almost any model of built-in microwave, cooktop, or wall oven into an existing opening.
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