The Aramaic scripts of North Arabia Aramaic was probably introduced into North Arabia as an official written language by the last king of Babylon, Nabonidus. Speakers of the various forms of Arabic had to use a different language for writing, such as Nabataean Aramaic or one of the Ancient North Arabian dialects or Greek or, possibly, Sabaic. So, on the rare occasions when someone wanted to write in their spoken language, Arabic, they would generally use the script of their habitual written language, such as Nabataean, Greek, an Ancient North Arabian script, etc. There are tens of thousands of inscriptions and graffiti in these scripts which were used in the period roughly between the sixth century BC and the fourth century AD.
Ali al-Manaser kindly provided the photograph, but the exact location of the rock remains unknown. The obelisk-shaped slab of basalt, measuring centimeters, from the base to the apex, by 34 centimeters, bears two Thamudic B inscriptions on a single face.
While it is not unusual to encounter the occasional Thamudic B inscription in northeastern Jordan and thamudic writing a letter Syria, they are far more common in what is today Saudi Arabia.
The significance of this particular find, however, lies in its contents. The inscriptions attest several unique letter shapes not known from elsewhere, unusual inscriptional formulae, and the first attestation of a Thamudic B abecedary, which follows the South Semitic order. Before examining the texts themselves, a few remarks on the language inscribed in the Thamudic B script is in order.
As is well known, Thamudic is a conventional label applied to the Ancient North Arabian ANA scripts which have not been precisely classified in any of the established categories;2 the term, therefore, does not refer to a single script, nor does it suggest that the scripts labeled Thamudic are more closely related to each other as opposed to other varieties of the South Semitic script.
Our knowledge of the languages these scripts express is even more fragmentary. While it has been conventional to consider all of the varieties attested in the ANA scripts reflexes of a single language, there is no a priori reason to assume so.
The different North Arabian epigraphic corpora are separated by great expanses of space and time, and to date no shared linguistic innovations to support the existence of an ANA sub-grouping have been identified.
Sabri Abbadi for giving us permission to publish this photograph. Taymanitic, Dadanitic, Hismaic, and Safaitic Macdonald We differ here from the recent assertion of Hayajneh But even these brief texts can testify to considerable internal linguistic diversity, which could signal both regional and chronological variation.
One of the unique features common in the Thamudic B inscriptions is the particle nm, which is no doubt a reflex of lm, the dative preposition plus an enclitic mem, with regressive assimilation. Other notable grammatical features include the consonantal reflex of the first person singular clitic pronoun -y Macdonald One of the most obvious gaps in our knowledge concerns the lexicon.
Many of the bizarre translations found in the text editions suggest that the reliance on the Classical Arabic lexicons as the sole point of reference is misguided.
Clearly, the process of linguistic decipherment is still underway, and much more work is needed to determine the linguistic character and affiliation of the varieties attested in the Thamudic scripts. The text curves around the edge of the face starting at the bottom right, with each of its components sharing roughly an equal portion of the stone.
So large a claim cannot be asserted in such a cavalier manner, but must instead be closely argued with the support of a large amount of linguistic evidence. It would seem highly unlikely that the authors of the Taymanitic inscriptions had anything to do with the authors of the Safaitic inscriptions, who not only wrote hundreds of miles away, but centu- ries later.
As one might expect, the languages attested in both corpora exhibit considerable differences. In some cases, however, it seems to have an introductory or presentative function as well.
Indeed, a simple h- demonstra- tive seems to be known from other ANA corpora Macdonald However, both possibilities should at least be considered on account of the fact that this is the first attestation of the word in Thamudic B, and so its exact meaning in this epigraphic context cannot be securely established.
This seems much more con- vincing than the sexual interpretation given to it by Jamme The inscription should read and translate as: The qd of this inscription should in fact be compared with the preverbal marker in Classical Arabic, qad. The rectangular shape of the w with a single diagonal line is sporadically attested in Thamudic B, but the circular w is more common.
The rectangular w, however, is attested in two out of the three known Dumaitic inscriptions. Moreover, the f occurs later in the inscription and is distinct from the glyph under consideration. On the other hand, its particular shape may be due to a writing error.
The correspondence between Arabic s and Thamudic and Sabaic s2 is problematic. While the sense of the root seems suitable, its morphological identity is more difficult to determine.
But there are a few problems with this interpretation. No direct object is mentioned in this inscription. Attractive as this solution may seem, such a usage is unattested elsewhere.
We read the second word as fnw. While the f is not carved in the typi- cal Thamudic B manner, it is identical to the glyph that occupies the position of f in the abecedary that follows. Consider, for instance, Ps For this reason, too, we restore a final k, the 2nd person clitic pronoun, in the portion that has been broken off.The Arabic alphabet evolved either from the Nabataean, or (less for writing on papyrus.
Mixture of Arabic and Aramaic, 1 vertical line in Thamudic: Nabataean, some letter-joining. Has a few diacritic dots. Last inscription in Nabataean language. A Thamudic B Abecedary in the South Semitic Letter Order Ahmad Al-Jallad and Ali Al-Manaser 1 Introduction The rock under consideration was discovered by Dr.
Sabri Abbadi in during a survey in Wādī al-Ḥašād about 45 km to the northeast of aṣ-Ṣafawī, near the north-eastern border of Jordan.1 Dr.
Ali al-Manaser kindly provided the photograph, but the exact location of the rock. A letter was sent to the State Party on 8 September , requesting additional information, and a State Party introduction of Thamudic writing, probably about years ago, is documented in thousands of inscriptions at Jubbah, compared with significantly lower numbers at Shuwaymis.
From the locations and contents of these. For the letter I handwriting worksheets, there are different styles of worksheets to choose from. You can practice writing uppercase, lowercase, or both cases together. You can practice writing uppercase, lowercase, or both cases together.
Through Sogdian, writing in Central Asia blossomed, spawning Uighur, Mongolian, and Manchurian, which would be the eastern-most descent of Aramaic. As you can see, Aramaic was a kind of "nexus" in the history of writing in Asia.
Nov 18, · Connections have been made between the ancient Thamudic scripts found from Syria to Yemen and the ancient Afro-Asiatic languages. Approximately Thamudic inscriptions have been found scattered from Syria to Ethiopia.
"Thamudic traces: some remarks on 'Regarding the thamoud' by G. Lombry" The letter also Author: Just Genesis.