Some 14 health workers have also lost their lives in six states. Daniel Bausch, director of the rapid support team, said:
Virology[ edit ] Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses. This virus has a both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.
Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material aerosol is believed to be the most significant means of exposure.
It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious material.
Transmission from person to person has been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers. The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to three months after becoming infected.
The confidence of a diagnosis can be compromised if laboratory tests are not available. One comprising factor is the number of febrile illnesses present in Africa, such as malaria or typhoid fever that could potentially exhibit similar symptoms, particularly for non-specific manifestations of Lassa fever.
However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection. Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia low white blood cell countthrombocytopenia low plateletsand elevated aspartate transaminase levels in the blood.
Lassa fever virus can also be found in cerebrospinal fluid. Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever Community education material for Lassa fever Control of the Mastomys rodent population is impractical, so measures focus on keeping rodents out of homes and food supplies, encouraging effective personal hygiene, storing grain and other foodstuffs in rodent-proof containers, and disposing of garbage far from the home to help sustain clean households.
Gloves, masks, laboratory coats, and goggles are advised while in contact with an infected person, to avoid contact with blood and body fluids. These issues in many countries are monitored by a department of public health.
In less developed countries, these types of organizations may not have the necessary means to effectively control outbreaks. Researchers at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases facility, where military biologists study infectious diseases, have a promising vaccine candidate.
After a single intramuscular injectiontest primates have survived lethal challenge, while showing no clinical symptoms. Early and aggressive treatment using ribavirin was pioneered by Joe McCormick in After extensive testing, early administration was determined to be critical to success.
Additionally, ribavirin is almost twice as effective when given intravenously as when taken by mouth.
Fluid replacement, blood transfusion, and fighting hypotension are usually required. Intravenous interferon therapy has also been used. The fetus has only a one in ten chance of survival no matter what course of action is taken; hence, the focus is always on saving the life of the mother.
Work on a vaccine is continuing, with multiple approaches showing positive results in animal trials. Abortion decreases the risk of death to the mother.
The spatial clustering for this disease is still in development as a lack of easy-available diagnosis, limited public health surveillance infrastructure, and high clustering of incidence near high intensity sampling make for an incomplete look at the impact of Lassa in this region.
Research in showed a twofold increase risk of infection for those living in close proximity to someone with infection symptoms within the last year. The high risk areas areas cannot be well defined by any known biogeographical or environmental breaks except for the multimammate rat, particularly Guinea Kindia, Faranah and Nzerekore regionsLiberia mostly in Lofa, Bong, and Nimba countiesNigeria everywhere and Sierra Leone typically from Kenema and Kailahun districts.
Benin had its first confirmed cases inand Togo had its first confirmed cases in Twenty to thirty cases had been described in Europe, as being caused by importation through infected individuals. An exception had occurred in when a healthcare worker became infected before the patient showed clear symptoms.
They therefore list it for urgent research and development to develop new diagnostic tests, vaccines, and medicines.Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.
Other efforts to control the spread of disease include having a cat to hunt vermin, and storing food in sealed containers. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) have commencedÂ work with the Edo State Government to bring to an end the Lassa Fever .
The scourge of Lassa Fever which is being carried by multimammate rats is rapidly spreading across the geopolitical zones in Nigeria. The Nigeria Centre for Disease. Since the Lassa fever virus is transmitted to humans via contact with food or household items contaminated by rodent hosts, sexually or direct/indirect contact with body fluids such as the blood, urine, and saliva of an infected person [2, 5], an integrated “One Health” (animal-human-environment) approach is the best fit-for-purpose to.
An abnormal condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as infection, inflammation, environmental factors, or genetic defect, and characterized by an identifiable group of signs, symptoms, or both.
ground of all potential pathogens to analyzing transmission dynamics among novel hosts. “Ultimately the only way we can quantify the risk of novel microbes to humans (and domestic livestock) is to create a huge phylogeny of all pathogens and their hosts,” they write.